Lithium Chloride is extremely soluble in polar solvents such as water due to the small size of Li+ ion. LiCl form crystalline hydrates, unlike other alkali metal chlorides. The anhydrous salt can be regenerated by heating the hydrates. LiCl also absorbs up to four equivalents of ammonia/mol.
There are many ways of manufacturing Lithium Chloride:
Method 1: Lithium chloride may be prepared by reaction of lithium carbonate or lithium hydroxide with hydrochloric acid followed by crystallization:
Li2CO3+ 2HCl → 2LiCl + CO2+ H2O LiOH + HCl → LiCl + H2O
Crystallization above 95°C yields anhydrous salt. Hot solution upon cooling forms crystals of monohydrate, LiCl.H2O.
Method 2: Reaction of lithium ores with chlorides or natural brines.
Mainly used to produce lithium metal by electrolysis of a LiCl/KCl which melts at 450 °C (842 °F)
Also used as a brazing flux for aluminium in automobile parts.
An additive in the Stille reaction in organic synthesis.
Flame colourant to produce dark, red flames
Preparation of carbon nanotubes, graphene and lithium niobite
The desiccant in dehumidification systems.