Glacial Acetic Acid (Food) - India


:   Acetic Acid

Cas Number

:   64-19-7

HS Code

:   2915.21.00




Basic Info

Appearance Name

:   Clear Colorless Liquid

Common Names

:   Ethanoic Acid, Ethylic Acid, Vinegar Acid


: 35 kg/HDMPE carboys

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Technical Document

Brief Overview

Glacial acetic acid represents the concentrated form of acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, with the molecular formula CH3COOH. As a weak monoprotic acid, it readily releases a proton from its acid functional group (-COOH), forming the acetate anion as a conjugate base. Acetic acid functions as a polar protic solvent, exhibiting solubility and miscibility in other polar solvents like water. However, its polar characteristics render it insoluble and immiscible in non-polar solvents such as octane. When utilized as a starting reagent, acetic acid easily transforms into other organic reagents like acetyl chloride and ethanol through substitution and reduction reactions, respectively. The corrosive properties of acetic acid extend to certain metals like iron, magnesium, and zinc, resulting in the generation of hydrogen gas and metal acetates. Notably, aluminum, due to the formation of a protective layer of aluminum oxide on its surface, displays resistance to acids and is, therefore, suitable for transporting acetic acid. Alternatively, high-density polyethylene (HDPE) drums, known for their resistivity, can also be employed for the transportation of acetic acids.

Manufacturing Process

Method 1: Methanol Carbonylation
The production of acetic acid involves the carbonylation of methanol. Metal carbonyl is introduced to methanol through either the rhodium-catalyzed Monsanto process or the iridium-catalyzed Cativa process. However, the Cativa process, supported by iridium catalysis, has rendered the Monsanto process obsolete due to its economic and environmentally friendly attributes. Consequently, the Cativa process has become the predominant method for acetic acid manufacturing.

Method 2: Acetaldehyde Oxidation
An alternative method for acetic acid production entails acetaldehyde oxidation. Acetaldehyde is obtained by oxidizing butane and hydrating ethylene through the Wacker process. The crude acetaldehyde undergoes purification via extractive distillation, followed by fractional distillation. Subsequently, this acetaldehyde undergoes further oxidation to yield acetic acid.

Method 3: Oxidative Fermentation and Anaerobic Fermentation
Acetic acid can also be synthesized through oxidative fermentation utilizing acetic acid bacteria, specifically Acetobacter, in an alcoholic environment. Additionally, anaerobic fermentation utilizing anaerobic bacteria, Acetobacterium, provides an alternative pathway. The Acetobacter method proves to be a more cost-effective approach for acetic acid production.

Food Industry

Within the food sector, acetic acid serves as an acidity regulator and a condiment. Its significant role extends to being a primary component in vinegar production. In the food industry, acetic acid also finds application as an antimicrobial agent and additive.

Other Applications

Acetic acid plays a crucial role in the breakdown of starches and sugars found in table sugar and milk sugar. It is a key component in the production of vinyl acetate monomer, acetic anhydride, acetate ester, and purified terephthalic acid. Furthermore, acetic acids have broad applications in textile processing and printing. They are utilized in the synthesis of acetic anhydride, acting as a major acetylation agent, with a primary application in the production of cellulose acetate.

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