Dipotassium phosphate, also known as potassium phosphate dibasic, has a chemical formula of K2HPO4. It is highly water-soluble and hence frequently used as a fertilizer and food additive. It functions as an effective buffering agent and sequestrant for a wide range of uses including a balancing agent. It is a common source of phosphorus and potassium.
Dipotassium phosphate is produced by the stoichiometric reaction of phosphoric acid with two equivalents of potassium hydroxide. This reaction is a neutralization reaction producing the aqueous salt of dipotassium phosphate and water. Water is then removed to obtain the fine white powder of potassium hydrogen phosphate. By controlling the amount of potassium hydroxide added, potassium dihydrogen phosphate and tripotassium phosphate can be produced.
In food processing, dipotassium phosphate is used as food additives to lower acid levels. Dipotassium phosphate can also be a stabilizer in non-dairy creamer and energy drinks. Dipotassium phosphate is a buffering agent, sequestrant and emulsifier in dairy products. Dipotassium phosphate is also applied in coffee, creamer and meat processing.
Dipotassium phosphate enhances plant nutrition and they are safe to be used in irrigation and spraying systems. Dipotassium phosphate can be mixed with all water-soluble fertilizer except calcium and magnesium as their phosphates are insoluble in water and will be precipitated.