Drying agents also referred to as cleaning solvents come in different types and have been commonly used in food, pharmaceuticals, packaging, electronics, and many industrial sectors.
A hygroscopic material called desiccant in its region causes or supports a condition of dryness. Preferably, silica is said to be stable in its chemical state and inert. This isn’t generally the situation in the lab, since the drying agent comes into close contact with the solvent and the chemicals.
It will be “wet” after an organic solvent comes in contact with a liquid solution, i.e. it will have some soluble water even if the solvents will usually have very low solubility with water. The dissolved volume of water differs from one liquid substance capable of dissolving to another. In order to expel the dissolved water, a drying agent is utilized. If there are bubbles of water, a liquid is completely visible, then before using a drying agent, use a separatory funnel.
Popular drying agents are inorganic sodium anhydrous salts that, when exposed to moist air or a wet solution, gain water from hydration. When the common agents like sodium sulfate anhydrous and magnesium sulfate absorb water particles they form into larger clumps. The crystals are extracted by filtration or decantation after standing for a short time, and the solution is then relatively free of water.
The drying agent is only added to the solution using a spatula in order to use a drying agent such as sodium sulfate or magnesium sulfate, then the solution is stirred or swirled or shaken and set aside for a few minutes to settle. If the solution is dry, then fine drying agents should still be visible notice that most undergraduates prefer to apply too much drying agent If not, apply and repeat the procedure with a little more drying agent.
Calcium chloride with chemical formula CaCl2, sodium sulfate with chemical formula Na2SO4, calcium sulfate chemical formula CaSO4 also called an all-purpose drying agent and magnesium sulfate with chemical formula MgSO4, all in their anhydrous form, are often used as drying agents in chemical labs.
Their quality can differ significantly from one solution to another, calculated by strength, capability, and velocity. Capacity leads to a higher number of water moles that can be bound by the drying agent. We can say that there is another framework of significance i.e performance which explains the amount of water remaining in the solution after the process of drying agent is done.
Sodium sulfate has a very high potential (n=10, e=25 mg / L) and is used mostly for very wet solutions. In ethereal solutions, it is very effective but also consumes other polar solvents such as alcohols, etc. Moreover, compared with magnesium sulfate, it is slower.